This book translates the latest theoretical perspectives on the emerging field of Planetary Health Studies into the practical reality of global political decision makers. It builds on the scientific data on the impacts of environmental change on human health to propose practical methods for operationalizing planetary health. The book maps opportunities for decision makers to break institutional silos and engage with bottom-up approaches that can transform planetary health from a global idea into a local reality. The analysis frames human health in the Anthropocene, an era in which humans have become the most powerful force affecting global ecosystems, and reveals new existential risks for humankind. Departing from ongoing multilateral efforts to promote sustainability, the author’s analysis places the agenda of planetary health on the desk of political decision makers, still underrepresented at planetary health gatherings. Given the pressing need to implement sustainable development policies, the book presents planetary health as an overarching framework for global policy targets, notably the UN Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and the post-2020 biodiversity framework under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. The book is timely in offering a concrete road map for practitioners and researchers interested in transforming the concept of planetary health into reality. With a collection of success stories, the analysis dwells on tools for community engagement, opportunities for health professionals training, gender empowerment, digital health, and innovative ways to enhance human well-being on a changing planet.